Musical Terms, Definitions and Meanings
The Conductor Is the Father of Musical Expression
Music soothes, excites, calms, moves, motivates, speaks, refines, describes, stirs, celebrates, heals, connects, expresses, reaches and satisfies. The soul of music is released through expressive interpretation of notes, patterns, and rhythm. Music is both complex and simple at the same time. Music is the master and musicians are its slaves.
The musician must read notation flawlessly, live within the rhythm and heart beat of its pulsing meter. Musical interpretation is left to he who creates it. The conductor is the “Father” of musical expression and signals musicians in the orchestra to play together, loud, soft, slow, fast, start and stop. Every single musician and vocalist must know not only how to play every note flawlessly but follow the conductor with expression.
How boring music would be without the emotion. Music sets up anticipations and then satisfies them. Musicians breathe feelings into a piece by introducing minute deviations in timing and loudness. Every deviation from an anticipation tends to weaken subsequent anticipation and thereby undercut the impact of further deviations. A momentary shift in tempo brings a tinge of emotion.
All emotions are either negative or positive. Negative emotions arise when experience falls short of anticipation. But we experience a feeling of well-being when small positive emotional events occur continuously, and we become depressed or irritable when a train of small negative events occur. So we can see how music generates emotion.
Composer George Gershwin
Common Terms, Definitions, and Meanings
- Sequence—a successive transposition and repetition of a phrase at different pitches.
- Tune—a melody.
- Una corda—the muting (or damping) mechanism on a piano
- Jig—a lively English dance, originating in the 16th century; it became the gigue.
- Jazz—a strongly influential musical form, emerging shortly after World War 1 from black communities in America, incorporating many styles, including blues and ragtime. Taken up by commercial musicians, it was disseminated into the wider musical culture.
Originally highly improvisational in character and played only on a small group of instruments, it developed into several forms, such as swing and bebop, and became popular as a form for big band ensembles.
It was a huge influence on the composers of the interwar period, many of whom wrote in a jazz idiom. Similarly, many musicians whose origins were in jazz produced works that have proved lasting in the context of art music, most notably George Gershwin.
7 Important Music Definitions to Know
I hope you enjoyed the video. There are hundreds of versions of Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue—this piano duet with the orchestra is just one of my personal favorites.
- Intonation—singing or playing in tune.
- Coda—the closing section of a movement
- Accidental—a sign—a sharp, flat, or natural—indicating the raising or lowering of a note.
- Seranade—a somewhat lighthearted piece, either a song or an instrumental work in several movements, such as those by Mozart, Brahms, or Schoenberg.
- Whole-tone scale—a six-note mode that consists only of whole-tone steps (for example, C, D, R, F sharp, G sharp, A sharp, instead of the combination of whole tones and semitones in other modes.
- Voice—one of two or more parts in polyphonic music.
- Major—one of the two modes of the tonal system; the other is the minor mode. The sequence of degrees in the major scale is always as follows: whole tone, whole tone, semitone, whole tone, whole tone, whole tone, semitone. Works written in major keys are often felt by listeners to have a positive, affirming character.
Playing Music Using Different Instruments
The Time Signature in Music
Definitions for Musical Terms for all Music Lovers
- Downbeat—the beat with the strongest accent, at the beginning of a bar.
- Dynamics—the loudness or softness of music, indicated by a system of gradations; from softest to loudest, these are pp, p, mp, mf, f, ff. The extremes have been extended in both directions.
- Soprano—the highest female voice.
- Staccato—abbreviated and detached notes.
- Timbre—the tone "color" of an instrument, voice or register.
- Key Signature—the sharps or flats at the beginning of each line of music to indicate the key of the music.
- Moderato—moderate tempo.
- Movement—a separate section of a large work.
- Musicology—the theoretical and historical study of music
- Middle C—the C more or less at the center of the piano keyboard (about 262 vibrations per second).
- Riff—a repeating motif or refrain in a modern pop song or jazz piece.
- Monotone—the repetition of a single pitch.
- Chant—unison of singing of sacred texts in a free rhythm similar to the rhythm of speech.
- Crescendo—a steady increase in volume.
Every musician including the vocalist has a personal responsibility to follow suggested musical terms as they perform. The composer has noted on the music, the tempo, dynamics and expressive interpretation for a reason. He wrote the music.
Can you imagine a full symphony orchestra all playing Beethoven at a very soft dynamic, except for one French horn, playing as loud as thunder?
Of course, he should be watching the conductor as he directs the orchestra to play loud or soft.
Music itself is another language—but its language is universal.
© 2011 Audrey Hunt