Piano in the Impressionist Period

Updated on February 19, 2017
Claude Monet's 1872 oil on canvas entitled Impression, soleil levant - Impression, Sunrise - which is said to be where the whole idea of Impressionism comes from
Claude Monet's 1872 oil on canvas entitled Impression, soleil levant - Impression, Sunrise - which is said to be where the whole idea of Impressionism comes from | Source

What is Impressionism?

Like most movements in the arts, Impressionism was partly a reaction to what came before it. The style was employed by a group of Paris-based artists in the late 19th century, led by Claude Monet whose painting titled Impression, Sunrise led one art critic to coin the phrase "impressionism" - which was meant sarcastically.

Impressionism in music blossomed in France near the end of the Romantic period, roughly between the years 1890 and 1920. Composers were more concerned with depicting atmosphere and suggesting colours than with trying to arouse emotions or tell a story. Just as with their counterparts in the art world, composers were looking for new ways to express themselves, using techniques that often flouted or disregarded conventional composition theory completely.

Voiles from Debussy's Preludes Book 1

What Impressionist Composers Did Differently

Composers of Impressionist music were looking for something new. The music of Wagner and Mahler had taken the major-minor system to new heights in works that sometimes lasted for hours and called for hundreds of performers. Composers such as Debussy, Ravel and Satie decided to take a different approach by writing music that was less tonally focused and written for much smaller forces.

One way they achieved harmonic ambiguity was through the use of modes. Listen to Debussy's piece entitled Voiles (in the video on the right) and you can hear how it opens with and is based on a whole tone scale. The use of modes and different scales like this helped Impressionist composers find unique ways of making music.

When it came to using smaller forces, the Impressionist composers turned to the piano, giving it something of a rebirth from their singular and unique perspective.

Claude Debussy

Of all the Impressionist composers, Claude Debussy (1862 - 1918) is considered the one most closely associated with the style
Of all the Impressionist composers, Claude Debussy (1862 - 1918) is considered the one most closely associated with the style | Source

Debussy, Ravel and Satie wrote music that was less tonally focused and often written for much smaller forces

Understanding Impressionist Music

According to Wikipedia, Impressionism is a style of music that "focuses on suggestion and atmosphere" to give the listener a suggestion of a thing rather than trying to paint a picture of it. Composers were able to achieve this by making use of a number of techniques:

  • Scales & modes - they made extensive use of all the modes, the whole-tone scale, the chromatic scale and the pentatonic scale
  • Parallel motion - a technique forbidden in the music that came before it, Impressionist composers let voices move together in fourths, fifths and octaves without worrying about the concept of contrary motion
  • Unusual orchestrations - they often created delicate textures within the orchestra by using extreme registers of instruments, having them play incredibly soft and focusing more on colour or timbre

Whole-tone Scale

A whole tone scale made up of 6 notes (hexatonic) starting on C.
A whole tone scale made up of 6 notes (hexatonic) starting on C. | Source

Pentatonic Scale

The black keys form a natural pentatonic (5-note) scale.
The black keys form a natural pentatonic (5-note) scale. | Source

Listen to Debussy's la fille aux cheveux de lin (the girl with the flaxen hair) and you'll hear the black note pentatonic scale used in the introduction of the main theme. The first 4 notes of the theme as they appear in the tune are numbered in the picture above.

Debussy - The Girl with the Flaxen Hair

How Parallel Motion Works

Below you'll see an excerpt from the tune for Good King Wenceslas. In the first example, it is harmonised as you would normally hear it. In the second, the harmony uses only parallel fourths. There's a video following the two photos so you can also hear what it sounds like.

The tune from Good King Wenceslas using traditional harmony
The tune from Good King Wenceslas using traditional harmony | Source
The tune from Good King Wenceslas with parallel 4ths
The tune from Good King Wenceslas with parallel 4ths | Source

Short Video on Parallel Motion

The Bridge to Twentieth Century Music

Of course, Impressionism didn't just appear out of thin air. It marks a progression from the heights of Romanticism directly into what we now call twentieth-century music. And the bridge between those two is believed to have been one particular piece of music written by Claude Debussy, entitled Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune.

The French composer Pierre Boulez (1925 - 2016) went so far as to say that "modern music was awakened" by L'après-midi d'un faune (Leaving Home: Conducted Tour of 20th Century Music; Hall, Michael; Faber & Faber; First Edition edition (1 Nov. 1996); p 93).

You can listen to its haunting opening flute melody, making use of the chromatic scale, in the video below.

Debussy's l'après-midi d'un faune

Where Does Impressionism Come From?

Impressionist Composer Poll

Who's your favourite Impressionist composer?

See results

What's In a Name? Composers & Impressionistic Titles

It's easy to see how Impressionist composers were so heavily influenced by the poetry and painting of the time. Here, for example, are titles from some of the better-known Impressionist pieces of music:

  • Images for Orchestra - Debussy
  • Jeux (games) - Debussy
  • Estampes (print or engraving) - Debussy
  • Pavane pour une infante defunte (Pavane for a dead princess or infanta) - Ravel
  • L'isle joyeuse (the joyful island) - Debussy
  • Reflets Dans L'eau (reflections in the water) - Debussy
  • Apres un Reve (after a dream) - Faure
  • The Snow is Dancing - Debussy

Titles like these make sense when you consider what the Impressionist composers were trying to achieve. Their goal was to create an atmosphere - not to describe a place but to establish a mood.

Maurice Ravel

Maurice Ravel at the piano in a photo taken in 1912
Maurice Ravel at the piano in a photo taken in 1912 | Source

The Main Features of Impressionism in Music

Like all the movements throughout the ages, Impressionism was another step along a continuously developing path. It formed a bridge between the music of the late Romantics and that of the twentieth century. It continued to influence composers long after its main proponents were gone. Here are its most significant features at a glance:

  • Conveyed an atmosphere, mood or subtle feeling as opposed to the strong emotions portrayed in Romantic music
  • Ignored and often disregarded many of the rules for creating major/minor harmonies
  • Employed modes and scales to give their work a fresh new twist
  • Wrote smaller works for smaller ensembles replacing large symphonic works with pieces for solo piano, piano and voice, and so on
  • Focused a lot of energy on creating delicate and shimmering orchestrations to better reflect this new music of theirs

Another thing Impressionist composers did was to treat chords differently. Instead of simply being points along a harmonic path, now chords were given their own identities, so to speak. Chords could often stand alone and it wasn't always necessary to resolve them as had been essential in the past.

A good example of many of these features can be seen and heard in Debussy's piece entitled La cathédrale engloutie (The sunken cathedral). In the video below you can see that the piece opens with chords moving upwards in parallel motion. It also begins pianissimo (pp). Notice also how when it reaches the final chord in the first bar, the chord just hangs there. It doesn't move to another chord but stands on its own and is allowed to resonate.

Later on in the piece, at 2:35 in this video, we hear the so-called "organ chords" where 4-note chords are played by both hands moving upwards and downwards in parallel motion, and this time fortissimo (ff). Notice also how the first note in the bar (low C) is held down with the sustain pedal to produce a slightly muddy sound, which is perfect to suggest or give an impression of the sounds emerging from underwater.

Debussy's The Sunken Cathedral (La cathédrale engloutie)

Gabriel Faure & Erik Satie

Click thumbnail to view full-size
Gabriel Faure (1845 - 1924) in the uniform of a student at the Ecole NiedermeyerA portrait of Erik Satie (1866 - 1925)
Gabriel Faure (1845 - 1924) in the uniform of a student at the Ecole Niedermeyer
Gabriel Faure (1845 - 1924) in the uniform of a student at the Ecole Niedermeyer | Source
A portrait of Erik Satie (1866 - 1925)
A portrait of Erik Satie (1866 - 1925) | Source

Other Impressionist Composers

While Debussy and Ravel are the two composers most closely associated with Impressionist music, they aren't the only ones. Others include Erik Satie and Paul Dukas, both French. Then there's the Spaniard Manuel de Falla, the American Charles Griffes, Ralph Vaughan Williams and Frederick Delius, both English, and the Italian Ottavino Resphigi.

One of the things that make Ravel and Debussy stand out from the others is the amount of music they wrote for the piano. These include pieces for solo piano, for two pianos, for piano and other instruments and for piano and voice. Here is a list of Debussy's solo piano music in chronological order to give you an idea of the breadth of his output:

  • Deux arabesques (1888, 1891)
  • Valse romantique (1890)
  • Suite bergamasque (1890–1905)
  • Pour le piano suite (1894–1901)
  • Estampes (1903)
  • Masques (1904)
  • L'isle joyeuse (1904)
  • Images, Set 1 (1905)
  • Reflets dans l'eau (1905)
  • Children's Corner (1906–1908)
  • Préludes, Book 1 (1909–1910)
  • Préludes, Book 2 (1912–1913)
  • Études (1915)

Meanwhile, Ravel's solo piano compositions include:

  • Menuet antique (1895)
  • Pavane pour une infante défunte (1899)
  • Jeux d'eau (1901)
  • Sonatine (1903-05)
  • Miroirs (1904-05)
  • Gaspard de la nuit after Aloysius Bertrand (1908)
  • Menuet sur le nom d'Haydn (1909)
  • Valses nobles et sentimentales (1911)
  • Le tombeau de Couperin (1914-17)

Franz Liszt

A photograph of the composer and pianist Franz Liszt taken by Franz Hanfstaengl in 1858
A photograph of the composer and pianist Franz Liszt taken by Franz Hanfstaengl in 1858 | Source

Impressionism's Links with the Past

As mentioned above, Impressionism didn't just pop up from nowhere. When it comes to the piano music of that period, you can see a direct link with what came before it. This is blatantly obvious in the late piano music of Franz Liszt. Listen to the opening of his Les Jeux d'Eaux à la Villa d'Este (The Fountains of the Villa d'Este), for example, and you could be forgiven for thinking it was a piece by Debussy or Ravel.

It's not a coincidence that Ravel wrote a solo piano piece called Jeux d'eau as well. According to Wikipedia, the French composer took his inspiration for the work from Liszt's music and from the noise made by water as it travels through brooks and cascades over rocks. And if you listen to both pieces you'll notice that, while they're naturally quite different and unique, they both open with a series of arpeggio figures played quickly and pianissimo (pp).

Quiz on Impressionism

view quiz statistics

Questions & Answers

    Comments

      0 of 8192 characters used
      Post Comment

      • profile image

        JohnMello 

        6 weeks ago

        Glad you liked it Big BOY & NewsUnlimited.

      • Big BOY 1269 profile image

        Big BOY 1269 

        8 months ago

        This really made an impression on me

      • JohnMello profile imageAUTHOR

        JohnMello 

        22 months ago from England

        Thanks heidithorne for your positive feedback. Much appreciated :)

      • heidithorne profile image

        Heidi Thorne 

        22 months ago from Chicago Area

        Whenever I look at Monet or Renoir paintings, Debussy's Clair de Lune is always running through my head. Probably because my father was an accomplished professional pianist and I heard this kind of stuff all the time. Great review of the period and what it brought to the world. Cheers!

      working

      This website uses cookies

      As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, spinditty.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

      For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://spinditty.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

      Show Details
      Necessary
      HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
      LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
      Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
      AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
      HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
      HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
      Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
      CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
      Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
      Features
      Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
      Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
      Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
      Marketing
      Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
      Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
      Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
      Statistics
      Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
      ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
      Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)