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The Story Behind the Song "Puff the Magic Dragon" by Peter, Paul and Mary

Rockin’ before she could walk, Kaili is a vinyl hound who knows the words to every post-1960 song.

A photo of folk singers Peter, Paul and Mary, dated May 21, 1963

A photo of folk singers Peter, Paul and Mary, dated May 21, 1963

What Was the Meaning Behind the Song "Puff The Magic Dragon"?

Who doesn't remember and love this wonderful folk song for children, performed by the trio Peter, Paul and Mary?

I can still recall every word in every verse of this beloved tune, though I am reminded that, as a child, I had a tough time with "frolicked in the autumn mist" and came up with my own alternate words that kind of fit.

"Puff The Magic Dragon" evokes that magical time in all of our lives, when life was simple, Santa Clause was real, and when we actually played and let our imaginations take us to far-off lands like Honahlee. We invented imaginary friends, and something like a magic dragon was very real to us indeed.

The song "Puff The Magic Dragon" brought some relief to youngsters too, by proving that dragons were not so fearsome after all. Before this song came along, bedtime for kiddies involved a ritual of leaping from the bedroom doorway onto the bed, so the dragons under the bed couldn't grab you by the ankles and drag you away.

So, how did this song about a magic dragon and childhood's end come to be?

When I was a child, I spoke as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child; but when I became a man, I put away childish things.

— Corinthians 13:11 NKJV

Who Wrote "Puff The Magic Dragon"?

The song we know and love began its life as a poem written in the spring of 1959 by a young university student by the name of Leonard Lipton. Leonard was attending Cornell University in central New York near the picturesque Finger Lakes region. A physics major, Leonard seemed the unlikely author of poetry of any kind. But he was truly an artist, as we will discover later in this story.

Leonard was at a library on campus one evening and came across a book of poems by American poet Ogden Nash. One of these poems, "The Tale of Custard The Dragon," written by Nash in 1936, really stuck with Leonard. As he turned it over in his mind, he decided that he could write a poem better than the one by Nash.

One of Leonard's pals happened to be the roommate of a fellow by the name of Peter Yarrow. Leonard visited their apartment often, and on the same evening as his library visit, while nobody else was at the apartment, Leonard proceeded to put his own poem together on Peter's old typewriter.

Belinda lived in a little white house,

With a little black kitten and a little gray mouse,

And a little yellow dog and a little red wagon,

And a realio, trulio, little pet dragon.

— ~ opening verse from "The Tale of Custard The Dragon"

How Did "Puff The Magic Dragon" Become a Song?

Peter Yarrow wrote the song before Peter, Paul and Mary came together as a group. The trio—Peter, Paul Stookey and Mary Travers—were folk singers who were working as solo acts, for pennies or a meal, in the coffee shops that abounded in those days.

Folk-rock manager extraordinaire Albert Grossman was looking to cash in on the resurgence of folk music and put the trio together in 1961. They quickly achieved fame with their first album, Peter, Paul and Mary, which was released in May of 1962 in both mono and stereo versions. The album contained the hits Lemon Tree and If I Had a Hammer, which reached #35 and #10 respectively on Billboard's Hot 100. Though the trio performed Puff The Magic Dragon in their live shows, they didn’t actually record the song until 1962 for their second album, Moving.

Years after Leonard had written and forgotten about the poem, a friend of his contacted him to tell him that Peter was looking for him. Peter had found the poem on his typewriter and had written the song based on Leonard's poem. Peter offered to give Leonard half of the songwriting credits after it had already become a hit. This was pretty significant at the time, as Leonard was working as a camp counselor when Peter tracked him down.

And, to this day, Leonard is still receiving royalties from the song. Not that he needs them. The physics major from an Ivy League school went on to produce 25 films and has a slew of patents to his name, including one for a technique for shooting 3D movies.

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Photo of Peter, Paul and Mary from 1968

Photo of Peter, Paul and Mary from 1968

Third Time Lucky

The group's second album, Moving, was released on January 15th, 1963. The first single from the album, a song called Big Boat, didn't fare all that well, reaching the bottom of the Top 100 and only remaining there for two weeks. The second single was a tune called Settle Down, which peaked in 56th spot on the charts.

Then Puff was released. The song made the Easy Listening, R&B and Hot 100 charts, and was—and remains—an immensely popular song. You can still find the original Moving LP from time to time on vinyl sites, or you can pick up The Very Best of Peter, Paul and Mary. This is a great collection, and besides Puff, it also contains their classic tunes "Lemon Tree," "If I Had a Hammer" and "Blowin' In the Wind."

Peter, Paul and Mary Performing Puff Live in 1965

Is "Puff The Magic Dragon" a Song About Drugs?

The answer is no.

This urban legend actually started right after the release of the song in 1963 as the result of a story in a New York newspaper. The story speculated about the name Jackie Paper being a reference to rolling papers used in marijuana cigarettes. And the very name "Puff" supposedly implied smoking marijuana.

Both Peter and Lenny have vehemently denied that the song has any connection to drugs. The song is about childhood, and the loss of innocence that comes with the end of childhood, nothing more sinister than that. As Leonard wrote in a post on Wordpress in February 2009, "When I wrote Puff I didn't know from marijuana. We're talking about Cornell in 1958. People were going to hootenannies – they weren't smoking joints." You can also read an interview with Leonard Lipton in this LA Weekly article published in February 2015.

5 PUFFacts

  1. Jackie Paper did not die, which is the way some people interpreted the lyrics. He simply grew up and no longer believed in magic dragons.
  2. There was an additional verse in the original poem that introduced a new child for Puff to play with, but neither Peter nor Leonard can recall the exact words.
  3. A new child—a girl—was introduced in a book published in 2007 by Peter and Leonard based on the song's lyrics. At the end of the story, the girl is introduced to Puff by Jackie Paper.
  4. Puff spent 14 weeks on the Billboard Hot 100 and reached the number two spot on May 11th, 1963.
  5. Peter doesn't recall what happened to the original typed sheet of paper containing the poem.

Covers of "Puff the Magic Dragon"

Puff has been covered by numerous artists over the years, including The Andrews Sisters and Jackie De Shannon in 1963, Connie Francis in 1967, and Bing Crosby in 1968.

One of the groups to record Puff was best known for their song about another mythical creature. The Irish Rovers, who had an international hit with The Unicorn in 1968, also recorded Puff the Magic Dragon in 1976. The song appeared on their Children of the Unicorn album.

Puff The Magic Dragon Movie

Puff was introduced to a whole new generation of young fans with the release of a movie adaptation by the same name in 1978. This half-hour animated film was made for television and aired on CBS on October 30th of that year. In this short film and both of its sequels, the voice of Puff was none other than Burgess Meredith.

The movie tells the story of a young boy who hasn't spoken in a very long time. When everyone, including his parents and doctors, has given up hope, Puff magically gets the little fellow talking again.

© 2016 Kaili Bisson


Harriet Stein on July 11, 2020:

I still cry every time I hear this song.

Kaili Bisson (author) from Canada on July 06, 2019:

Hi John,

I still love this song too! Something so sweet and innocent about it. I will need to seek out your poem :-)

John Hansen from Gondwana Land on July 06, 2019:

I loved this song as a child and still love it to this day. I even wrote a poem based on it called The Magic Dragon of Norwich as a response to a challenge here by Ann Carr. Thank you for sharing how the song came about.

Kaili Bisson (author) from Canada on April 06, 2019:

Hello Roberta and thank you so much for your kind words.

I'm so glad you enjoyed this article. I learn something new every time I write one of these articles.

I just loved Puff when I was a child, and I still love it now. It's just one of those songs that stays with us, and elicits all kinds of imagery and emotions for everyone who hears it.

Roberta Carver on April 06, 2019:


Thank you so much for your wonderful story. It has a lot of information, with many details unknown to me and some forgotten. This song brings back so many memories. I knew all the words as a child, and would love to sing. Things were different back then, but something's never change. It's great songs and stories like "Puff the magic Dragon" that remind us of that. And thankfully wonderful writer's like you who are here to remind us too! You have a great talent, thanks for sharing it with me.

Marjo Dipalo on October 06, 2018:

Thank you.

JP Marmaro on September 25, 2018:

This song has always embodied Childhood to me, and I see it as lament for the brevity of childhood as well as for the inescapable impermanence of the world...

Tom Ryugo on August 23, 2017:

I always assumed the song was based on old English or Scottish folklore as it has that kind of image. But it also makes sense as a little boy imagining his toy dragon being magic - and as he grows older, he plays with it less and less until one day he quits playing with it altogether.

JEFF SMITH on August 20, 2017:

This evening I was fortunate to spend a birthday dinner with my wife and her dad. As we sat eating dinner we were having catch up talk about family and things. When the dinner was over Ron brought up a something that was on his mind. We listened and then the story seemed to open up into his missions in Vietnam. He was contacted by someone a few weeks ago about his involvement in the Vietnam war. His mission was a medivac helicopter pilot and his assignment was to rescuer wounded and companies who were in trouble from enemy fire. On one such mission his craft was flying near the "hot zone" at roughly 3000 feet. His commander was flying at 5000 feet and a call came in from soldiers on the ground. They were under heavy fire and had many casualties. Ron radioed in for approval to fly into the "hot zone" and the reply from his commanding officer was, a defiant "No" as this was surely a suicide mission. Ron persisted not once but many times and having experience in the army knew he could call in fire power on 3 of the 4 sides of the pick up zone which would provide cover fire for a brief few moments. Again he was declined. Again he persisted not twice but many many times and said "you'll have to court marshal me then." His superior officer said to him, "Then go ahead but I will say off the record that I never gave you the ok."

Ron immediately flew in to make the attempt to rescue those who called for help. When he flew his helicopter in "a green military medivac hewy, He flew alone into a barrage of firepower. The helicopter was designed to carry 6 men as passengers but there a great need for more missions with a higher risk of being shot down. He flew 3 missions that day into the same "hot zone" where he was able to pick up somewhere between 79 and 82 people on 3 separate missions. Thee men were loaded on in "heaps" because everyone wanted to be rescued.

Somehow Ron was able to fly all 3 missions that day and when the day was over his commander asked him "who was flying with him?" I'm not sure of his exact words nor is he. But his chin seemed to quiver as he told the emotional part of the story. He as asked to take a look at his bird with his commander. When they examined the helicopter it had 47 holes in it including some in the blades which caused a serious vibration when it flew.

That was 50 years ago and today he was printing off some 60 pages of comments from those whom he rescued. He didn't know those records existed until someone told him of them the week prior.

So much our generation has yet to learn from those who fought in the ugly and distant wars of the past. Yet so grateful for the missions flown and the lessons we have yet to learn. May we always appreciate and recognize them for their efforts as well as those who gave it all for a cause some never believed in.

In those moments I knew he wanted the respect and recognition for something so few of us will ever understand. It took a certain kind of a man to persist because he knew innocent men would die if he didn't fly to save them. He has a family at home with 4 children at that time and I'm sure those thoughts of losing a father did cross his mind. Just think of how many fathers were blessed that day to return home to raise their own children? All because of a man who wouldn't allow fear of being killed himself to alter the mission he was called to perform.

Some never came home alive but for those who did for a "Silver Star" it was quite the price to pay for this mission on this day. Thank you Ron Jones for the missions you served and for the many who's lives were spared on that ugly day. There is a silver lining to the story and if some magic were to happen, Puff the Majic Dragon did fly that day.

Dave Wilkinson from Sheffield, South Yorkshire on August 04, 2017:

Puff is the song that always calmed my older child down when she was upset, even as a baby. Searching for a video of the group singing the song, we found the video mentioned above, this quickly became a favorite.

dave burock on July 29, 2017:

All of us thought that the little boy in the song died, but apparently not. great song. my grandson, aiden, l0ves it also.

Sherry on July 26, 2017:

PP&M were pure magic in concert. When they would sing "Puff" tears would fall across the room.

Cathy on July 22, 2017:

One of the saddest songs i've ever heard. i cried as a child whenever i listened to it. I felt so bad for Puff!

Brian Harvey on March 25, 2017:

The first time I visited Hanalei on Kauai, I tried to find out if that quaint oceanside village was connected to the song, but, alas, it is not. Nice little daydream fodder, though. Has anyone else tried to make that connection that you know of?

Kaili Bisson (author) from Canada on March 19, 2017:

Hello Dani, I do hope that singing this makes your day go better!

Dani McDaniel on March 19, 2017:

I have always so loved this song. I think I'm just going to have to start singing it again. I'm always humming or singing as I go about my day this will make my day going about better!

Kaili Bisson (author) from Canada on June 28, 2016:

Hello Flourish and thank you. I'm so glad you enjoyed this. It really was a very innocent little song.

FlourishAnyway from USA on June 28, 2016:

This was thoroughly entertaining and provided information that I had long ago wondered about. Glad you set the story straight about the innocent meaning behind the song, too.

Kaili Bisson (author) from Canada on May 26, 2016:

Hello Peggy,

Thank you for reading and sharing. Yes, those were different times, weren't they :-)

Peggy Woods on May 25, 2016:

I loved all those songs by Peter, Paul and Mary including this one. Takes me back to the 1960s when I hear songs like this. Thanks! Will share.

Kaili Bisson (author) from Canada on May 17, 2016:

Hello Kenneth,

Thank you so much for reading this hub and writing such wonderful feedback. I just love the song too. I was also a big Captain K fan when I was a kid.

I recall reading about the gunships in Nam being called after Puff...apparently, P, P and M hated that reference.

And, the good news is that I have been one of your followers and avid readers for a long tine now...keep up the great work!

Kenneth Avery on May 16, 2016:

Truly, without any doubt, My favorite song and hub. I am not blowing smoke. No pun intended.

I have a few things to share with you.

On the iconic Capt. Kangaroo (children's show), Magic Drawing Board had a routine that "he" drew with this song as his music. He drew Puff, Jackey, and all of the characters and like your hub brings to the front, a New kid showed up one day at Puff's cave and the entire process started all over again.

I saw Peter, Paul, and Mary on PBS, Live from Carnegie Hall and they did this song last and mostly without music. The crowd, mostly moms and kids sang the song in total harmony without missing a lick.

I admit it. Tears fell from my eyes for "I" felt a lot of emotions at this time of my life having worked for 23 years with our local paper; wrote scripts for a community theater three friends and I formed to do shows to give monies to charities and was on the radio with a friend of mine.

I pretty much have accomplished all that I wanted to do.

But Puff The Magic Dragon IS my favorite song.

Fact: Those huge Huey helicopters used in Nam to deliver men and equipment were tagged "Puff The Magic Dragon."

Question: If you are not following me, I BEG you to be one now. I know that I am one of your followers.

I may not be the smartest guy on HP, but I do know talented writers and that means YOU.

Your Friend for Life,


Glenn Stok from Long Island, NY on May 09, 2016:

Yeah! It's amazing how much meaning there is in every line of the song.

Kaili Bisson (author) from Canada on May 09, 2016:

Hi Glenn,

Thank you so much for your wonderful feedback. I'm glad you now know about Jackie many people think Jackie died because the lyrics say "Dragons live forever, but not so little boys." But the next line is "Painted wings and giant strings make way for other toys." :)

Glenn Stok from Long Island, NY on May 09, 2016:

Your hub brought back memories of a time when things were different. All childhoods come to an end. In some ways, with some people, they hold on in some way or another. The folk song Puff The Magic Dragon became more meaningful to me by reading your hub. You explained things I never even realized. I also thought that the friend had died. But it makes more sense that he simply grew up.

Kaili Bisson (author) from Canada on May 07, 2016:

Thank you Phoenix. Mine too...I just love this little song :-)

Zulma Burgos-Dudgeon from United Kingdom on May 07, 2016:

Good hub. I remember this song very well. It's one of my guilty pleasures.

Kaili Bisson (author) from Canada on May 06, 2016:

Hello Mel, that road trip was one you needed to make for many reasons it seems. I's so glad you were able to get the LP before it disappeared. Glad you enjoyed this!

Mel Carriere from Snowbound and down in Northern Colorado on May 06, 2016:

Curiously enough, on that same trip that took me through Colorado that I just wrote about, I absconded with my mother's Peter, Paul and Mary album, the first one that you mentioned. We played the groves off that record when we were kids, so I wanted to have it because she was getting ready to sell it. That album has deep sentimental value for me. Great hub!

Kaili Bisson (author) from Canada on May 06, 2016:

Hi Alicia and thank glad you enjoyed this article. I'm still humming it :-)

Linda Crampton from British Columbia, Canada on May 05, 2016:

I loved the song about Puff the Magic Dragon when I first heard it and I still like it. I enjoyed reading this article and learning about the background of the song very much!

Kaili Bisson (author) from Canada on May 05, 2016:

Hello lambservant and thank you. I'm glad you enjoyed this. Puff is such a sweet song, isn't it?

Lori Colbo from United States on May 05, 2016:

Who doesn't love Peter Paul and Mary and Puff the Magic Dragon. You wrote this very well. Loved the stor y behind the song. Nice job.

Kaili Bisson (author) from Canada on May 05, 2016:

Hello Harish, I'm so glad you enjoyed this. I loved this tune when I was a child and I still love it today.

Harish Mamgain from New Delhi , India on May 05, 2016:

Hi Kaili ! What a wonderful hub about a folk song ! I thoroughly enjoyed this great stuff, and it reminded me of my childhood days when imagination ran so wild.

Kaili Bisson (author) from Canada on May 05, 2016:

Hello RTalloni, you are so welcome. I heard this on a 60s station the other day and it brought back all these wonderful memories. Too many children now seem to be glued to electronic any of them really play anymore like we did when we were kids?

RTalloni on May 04, 2016:

Thanks for this look at a vintage folk song that so many continue to enjoy. Having heard the drug rumors I did wonder what the artists would have said about them. So many children need the opportunity to have a real childhood of carefree, imaginative make believe today. It's neat to hear this song again. :)

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