Lyndon Henry is writer, editor, and journalist with background experience in classical music performance and composition.
Intro to Classical Music
This article has been written mainly with classical music neophytes in mind, but hopefully it will be helpful to anyone with some level of interest in the art. If you're just getting introduced to classical music, possibly this discussion will help orient you (at least a little) to some aspects.
But even if you've been enjoying classical music for a long time—or at least have a measure of experience—this article may help answer your questions or tell you something you didn't know.
For those less familiar with the ways of the classical music sector, one of the first things to understand is that it involves much more than just symphonic orchestras. As the Washington Post's chief music critic Anne Midgette explained in 2018, "The term 'classical music' is an inaccurate catchall for everything from solo piano works to Gregorian chant to contemporary instrumental sextets with electric guitar." 
4 Categories of Classical
More specifically, the Classical.net website  delineates most classical works into four basic categories:
- Orchestral: symphonies, concertos, suites, overtures, serenades, etc.
- Chamber: piano trios, string quartets, wind quintets, etc.
- Keyboard: piano sonatas, organ works, harpsichord works, etc.
- Vocal: opera, lieder/song, oratorios, sacred choral music such as masses and motets, etc.
More Than Just Symphonies
In terms of instrumental music, besides symphonic orchestras, classical music involves a wide variety of other ensembles and instrumental soloists. Although there are many different combinations, some of the most common include:
- Soloists on the violin, cello, woodwind instruments (all typically with piano accompaniment)
- String quartets (two violins, viola, cello – often just called a "quartet")
- Piano trios (violin, cello, piano)
- Piano quintet (string quartet + piano)
- Wind quintet (flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, French horn)
But it's the symphonic orchestra, of course, that predominantly seems to represent classical music in the minds of most of the population. There is something powerful, majestic, and awesome in the sound and sight of a full orchestra of 75 to more than a hundred expert musicians playing in perfect coordination to render a great masterpiece, making it sound as if it came from one gigantic multi-voiced instrument.
Stylistic Periods of Classical Music
In dealing with classical compositions, it's useful to understand that classical music is commonly categorized into a series of historical periods, generally following designated periods of art history.
For classical music enthusiasts, here are commonly designated historical periods, with approximate date ranges, and examples of a few major composers identified with each (keep in mind that some composers may overlap into two periods):
- Medieval (800–1400): Hildegard von Bingen, Guillaume de Machaut
- Renaissance (1400–1600): Johannes Ockeghem, Orlande de Lassus, Claudio Monteverdi
- Baroque (1600–1750): Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frederick Handel, Antonio Vivaldi
- Classical (1750–1820): Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Joseph Haydn, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach
- Romantic (1820–1910): Ludwig von Beethoven, Johannes Brahms, Franz Schubert, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
- Modern (1910–present): Jean Sibelius, Arnold Schoenberg, Igor Stravinsky, Sergei Prokofiev, Paul Hindemith, Samuel Barber
Why are these periods useful to know? As the Classical.net website  explains, "Although any such groupings are at best arbitrary, it may help you to associate composers with the predominant styles flourishing during these periods, and thus make it easier to find music that you will like that for now may be unfamiliar."
How to Listen to Classical Music
From casual to concentrated, there are many different modes of listening to classical music. For some listeners, it can just be pleasant background music while they're at work or doing other tasks.
However, classical music can improve your well-being, too. As Irish journalist Kym Duignan points out, "Many people also find listening to it to be a very calming experience that's beneficial for their mental health. " 
Concentrated Listening Reveals Depth
But there are even greater benefits to more focused listening. In a 2017 article published in The Pacific Symphony Blog  writer Timothy Mangan emphasizes:
"The first thing you have to know about listening to classical music, and probably the single most important, is that it demands your full attention, like reading a book or watching a movie. ... But classical music, to be understood and appreciated, must be foreground. ... It is a narrative in notes. You must follow it, to hear what happens; you must participate in the experience."
In my own article  "The Transformative Power of Great Classical Music", I stressed this with a particular focus: For those willing to listen more closely and intently to a work that especially seems to "resonate" with them, they might feel a powerful connection.
And listening over and over to a piece can reveal more and more aspects, emphasizes Duignan: "Listen to it more than once ... Often there are many different layers to classical music. Therefore to fully appreciate it you need to listen to it multiple times...."
Casual Listening Develops Ear
While intense, focused listening is recommended, nevertheless, in the appropriate situation—like when you might listen to background music as I described earlier—there are some direct music-related benefits of casual listening:
- Reviewing composers/pieces: Listening to a classical radio station, or perhaps some recordings you found in the library and are curious about, is a way to explore and possibly discover new compositions and composers that appeal to you.
- Familiarizing yourself with a piece: I've found that playing a recording of a new or less familiar composition multiple times, often in the background while I'm doing something else, is an effective way to better familiarize myself with at least the basic contours of the piece.
This is especially useful if you're planning to attend a concert or recital and are aware beforehand of such an unfamiliar piece on the program.
Accessing Classical Music
Whether you're a novice or a more experienced classical listener, you'll probably want to find ways to expose yourself to more classical music, and hopefully find more and more pieces you strongly like.
Libraries and Community Colleges
The Classical.net website notes that, "Many college and community libraries have very large collections of classical CDs that can be checked out. Also, listening to classical radio can be a good source."
And let's not forget all the music accessible from the Internet! Writing on the Musicalmum.com website, Emily Hughes suggests "10 of the Best Websites for Free Classical Music". 
Websites and Streaming
Several that I've found especially helpful are:
And there's always Google, Spotify, and YouTube, where you can search for recordings by composer or composition.
Attending Classical Music Concerts
While recordings obviously offer convenience and other benefits, the value of attending live concerts cannot be underestimated.
As the renowned music critic Anthony Tommasini  has observed:
Recorded music is widely accessible, and that's an incredible resource. Still, classical music is a performing art best experienced live. In our wired, amplified world, concert halls and opera houses are essentially the last places we can hear music in a natural acoustic, where we can savor the richness of an orchestra's string section or the ping of a tenor's voice.
Visceral Power of Orchestra
Midgette  points out that:
Classical music offers something on a large scale. Not many art forms offer you something as big as an orchestra concert: 100 people playing pieces that can last half an hour or more.
One of the best online resources promoting the benefits of live classical concerts is a paper titled, "How to Effectively Listen and Enjoy a Classical Music Concert", available from the website of Ouachita Baptist University.  The paper emphasizes that:
- Hearing live music is one of the most pleasurable experiences available to human beings.
- The music sounds great, it feels great, and you get to watch the musicians as they create it.
- No matter what kind of music you love, try listening to it live.
Tickets Can Be Expensive
Even for many classical music devotees, the nominal ticket prices of some major performances can be daunting. However, free concerts are occasionally offered, and lower-price tickets may be available for students and through special group rates. The Classical.net website  acknowledges that concerts can be expensive, but suggests other alternatives:
Many colleges have free recitals and very low cost concerts available, and community music groups often have low-cost concerts throughout the year. Experiencing live music will help to familiarize you with what real music sounds like and help make you a better judge of recording and performance quality.
Importance of Audience Etiquette
For a live concert, there are a few issues to keep in mind:
- Audience quietness is important. Even small noises can be disruptive and distracting to the audience as well as to the musicians. Make sure your phone is turned off or switched to "airplane" mode. And definitely refrain from talking! Try to suppress sounds like coughing, sniffling, or clearing your throat. Using a handkerchief, Kleenex, or other item to muffle your mouth will significantly reduce the decibel level!
- Don't applaud until the entire multi-part work is finished. Most classical compositions—especially symphonies, concertos, suites, sonatas, etc.—have multiple parts or movements. If you've been given a printed program, it will indicate the separate movements/parts of each work, so you can follow along and know when the piece actually finishes.
More additional resources, particularly for beginners, are available on the Internet. The following are several I've found that seem especially helpful:
- The Ultimate Beginner’s Guide to Classical Music: Particularly good, readable explanations of some basic classical music issues, with a particular focus on the Baroque, Classic, and Romantic eras.
- Category: Beginners Guides: A collection of online guides to various composers as well as individual classic works.
- Talk Classical: A lively online classical music forum providing interactive discussion of classical music issues, including current topics in classical music, historical issues, new recordings, and much more. Excellent source of links to online recordings that can be sampled.
- A Beginner's Guide to Classical Music: Talk Classical discussion thread particularly aimed at providing neophyte listeners with suggestions of repertoire and recordings.
Hopefully, the information in this and the other sections provided in this article will help you toward more complete and transformative musical experiences!
-  Anne Midgette, "A beginner's guide to enjoying classical music. No snobs allowed." Washington Post, August 10, 2018.
-  Classical.net, "How to Go About Finding Classical Music You Like", Classical.net website, accessed February 2, 2022.
-  Classical.net, "Musical Periods", Classical.net website, accessed February 2, 2022.
-  Kym Duignan, "How to listen to classical music – a beginner's guide", RTE website, July 14, 2020.
-  Timothy Mangan, “5 Tips on How to Listen to Classical Music”, The Pacific Symphony Blog, September 27, 2017.
-  Lyndon Henry, "The Transformative Power of Great Classical Music", Spinditty, February 1, 2022.
-  Emily Hughes, "10 of the Best Websites for Free Classical Music", Musicalmum.com website, 14 September 2021.
-  Anthony Tommasini, "Curious About Classical Music? Here’s Where to Start", New York Times, 2 August 2018.
-  Midgette, op. cit.
-  "How to Effectively Listen and Enjoy a Classical Music Concert" (PDF), Ouachita Baptist University website, accessed 2022-02-06
-  Classical.net, op. cit.
© 2022 Lyndon Henry